Proving the Negative: The Evolution of Nuclear Safeguards and Challenges for Implementation

LanceKim
SPEAKER:
LANCE KIM, PH.D.
DATE/TIME:
MON, 02/29/2016 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2016 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

Under its State Level Concept, the International Atomic Energy Agency envisions a State Level Approach for safeguards implementation that considers, inter alia, a state’s nuclear and nuclear-related activities and capabilities as a whole when developing an annual safeguards implementation plan. As safeguards planning has become more dependent upon predictions of acquisition path completion time and assurances of the absence of undeclared activities, safeguards effectiveness and efficiency are potentially undermined when a state’s capabilities are underestimated. To begin to address these issues, this talk will first explore theory and evidence to characterize sources of uncertainty affecting estimates of completion time. The hide-and-seek dynamic affecting the detection of undeclared activities will then be considered, introducing optimal search theory to inform stopping criteria for search efforts. Based on this discussion, several policy-relevant insights are identified that contribute to the ongoing development of the State Level Concept.

About the Speaker:

Lance K. Kim was most recently a Research Fellow in the Nuclear Security Unit of the Institute for Transuranium Elements at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy. His research focused on open source information acquisition and analysis for nuclear security and non-proliferation, and on Acquisition Pathways Analysis in support of the European Commission Support Program to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Department of Safeguards. Prior to the JRC, his work experience include stints at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in reactor safety, the IAEA as a US Support Program Fellow in safeguards, the Department of State as in intern in verification and compliance, and the RAND Corporation as a Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow. He is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley with a B.S. in Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering, a M.P.P. in Public Policy, and a Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering where he was a Public Policy and Nuclear Threats Fellow.

Low-dose Radiation: A Problem or a Solution?

dossphoto
SPEAKER:
MOHAN DOSS, PH.D., MCCPM

MEDICAL PHYSICIST
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR,
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
FOX CHASE CANCER CENTER

DATE/TIME:
MON, 02/08/2016 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2016 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

The carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation (LDR) has been debated intensely in the scientific community over the past several decades, with many publications supporting the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation-induced cancers and others supporting the opposite concept of radiation hormesis, i.e. reduction of cancers with LDR. Since the 1950s, international and national advisory bodies have overwhelmingly recommended the use of the LNT model as a conservative approach to radiation safety. The atomic bomb survivor data, which are generally considered to be the most important data for determining the health effects of radiation, were until recently consistent with the LNT model, and have been used to justify the LDR cancer concerns based on the LNT model. However, following the 2012 update, these data are no longer consistent with the LNT model but are compatible with radiation hormesis. In addition, considerable amount of evidence supporting radiation hormesis has accumulated over the years, and major flaws have been identified in the publications supporting the LNT model, negating their conclusions. Thus, a resolution of the contentious issue of LDR health effects appears to be emerging in favor of radiation hormesis. If the validity of radiation hormesis is confirmed and recognized by the scientific community, it would reduce the fear and concerns regarding LDR exposures and result in rescinding of the present LNT model-based stringent radiation safety regulations. This would reduce objections to nuclear power plants and reduce the cost of nuclear power considerably enabling resurgence of clean, safe, reliable, and inexpensive nuclear power to meet the growing energy requirements of the world. Also, considering the slow progress in reducing cancer mortality rates over the past five decades in spite of tremendous efforts in the war on cancer, and considering the significant decrease in cancers observed following incidental or accidental LDR exposures, LDR may indeed turn out to be an important part of the solution to the cancer problem

About the Speaker:

Dr Mohan Doss received his B.Sc. degree in Physics from Madras University, India and his M.Sc. degree in Physics from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. He obtained M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from Carnegie-Mellon University, with his thesis work in the area of medium energy nuclear physics.
COLLOQUIUM SERIES
SPRING 2016 University of California, Berkele y
After post-doctoral research positions at Nuclear Physics Laboratory of University of Washington, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory, he became a Medical Physicist providing physics support for Nuclear Medicine Department of Regina General Hospital in Regina, Canada. He has certification as a Member of Canadian College of Physicists in Medicine. Presently, he is a Medical Physicist in the Diagnostic Imaging Department of Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia providing physics support. His research interests include optimization of PET imaging in oncology, biodistribution and dosimetry of novel PET imaging agents, PET imaging of Y-90 microspheres, control of non-cancer diseases using low-dose radiation, and prevention and treatment of cancer using low-dose radiation. He is one of the founding members of the international group Scientists for Accurate Radiation Information which aims to reduce the harm from radiophobia by providing accurate information on the health effects of radiation. He was the recipient of the Outstanding Leadership Award by the International Dose-Response Society in 2014.

Nuclear Science and Security Consortium: Training the Next Generation of Experts

Vujic
SPEAKER:
JASMINA VUJIC, PH.D.

PROFESSOR OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
PROGRAM DIRECTOR, NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND SECURITY CONSORTIUM
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

DATE/TIME:
MON, 02/01/2016 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2016 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

The Nuclear Science and Security Consortium (NSSC) enlists seven of the Nation’s premier educational institutions and four DOE national laboratories to grow and strengthen the human capital available for the Nation’s nuclear science and security mission.  The NSSC was established in 2011 through the $25 million five-year grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE NNSA) to support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation mission through the training and education of experts in the nuclear science and security field. An additional $1.5 million was awarded to NSSC in 2012, to expend nuclear science and security training and education to Minority Serving Institutions.  Over the last 4 years, NSSC has focused on broad recruitment of students at all levels, selecting those with solid science and engineering foundation, who then went through a rigorous hands-on training at undergraduate and graduate levels in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear and radiation chemistry, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation and nuclear security policy. Overall, more than 300 students, faculty and specialists have been directly involved with NSSC, working on more than 50 research projects. The NSSC-funded students and faculty have a strong collaboration with 4 national laboratories (LBNL, LNL, LANL and SNL), and work closely with over 60 lab researchers that also provide mentorship to the NSSC students and post-docs. In addition,  under the NSSC umbrella, the new programs, options, curricula, courses, and training programs have been developed. A series of workshops, panels and summer schools have been organized on the topics critical to nuclear security.

About the Speaker:

Prof. Vujic is a full professor and former Chair at the Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley. She is an expert in the areas of nuclear reactor physics, radiation detection and measurements, non-proliferation, and engineering aspects of medical imaging and cancer therapy. Professor Vujic is the author of three books, the editor of 6 monographs, and the holder of one U.S. patent. She authored close to 300 research publications. Under her mentorship, 26 students received the Ph.D. degrees and 25 received the M.S. degrees. In 2011, the team led by Professor Vujic, won a major five-year $25 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (NNSA) to establish the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium Center at Berkeley that focuses on educating the next generation of scientists and researchers in the nuclear science and security field.

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