Instigating a Nuclear Cost Culture

adams
SPEAKER:
RODNEY M. ADAMS, M.S.

PUBLISHER, ATOMIC INSIGHTS
HOST, THE ATOMIC SHOW

DATE/TIME:
MON, 02/09/2015 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2015 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

The nuclear industry has a long history of avoiding the topic of effectively controlling costs when designing structures, systems and components and when devising operational concepts. This history is rooted in a variety of assumptions, in a long period of bad habits learned as a national security related endeavor, and in a habitual defensive mode with regard to public relations.

The topic is too important to be left in the shadows. Cost control should not be a subject that is whispered about by new entrants into the field only to be shushed by more experienced professionals as a topic that cannot be seriously discussed. Regulators must be reminded that their job is to protect public health and safety -- not from radiation, but with the help of radiation and nuclear energy. The industry leaders need to explain that cost control does not mean cutting corners on safety or security; in fact, a proper emphasis on cost effectiveness can enhance both safety and security.

 

About the Speaker:

Rod Adams graduated from the US Naval Academy in 1981 with a BS in English. He was accepted into the nuclear power community by Admiral Rickover. He served on USS Stonewall Jackson as a junior officer in a variety of billets and then as the Engineer Officer of the USS Von Steuben.  After 12 years of naval service he resigned his active duty commission, entered the Naval Reserves and founded Adams Atomic Engines, Inc. In 1999, after 6 years of entrepreneurial activity, he was recalled to active duty and served until his retirement as a Commander in 2010. During his second active duty period, he gained experience as a teacher, financial analyst, maintenance analyst, headquarters staff officer, and program manager. He is now the publisher of Atomic Insights and the host of the Atomic Show podcast.

Consortium for Verification Technology

Pozzi-photo
SPEAKER:
DR. SARA POZZI

DIRECTOR, DETECTION FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION GROUP

DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND RADIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

DATE/TIME:
MON, 02/02/2015 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2015 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

The Consortium for Verification Technology (CVT), consists of thirteen leading universities and nine national laboratories, working together to provide the research and development and human capital needed to address technology and policy issues in treaty-compliance monitoring. The underlying issues include nuclear nonproliferation and safeguards in support of the mission of the NNSA’s Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development office. In this presentation, I will describe the major gaps and emerging challenges in treaty verification that the CVT will address in six thrust areas: (i) treaty verification: characterizing existing gaps and emerging challenges, (ii) fundamental data and techniques, (iii) advanced safeguards tools for accessible facilities, (iv) detection of undeclared activities and inaccessible facilities, (v) disarmament verification, and (vi) education and outreach.

Over the next five years, the CVT will deliver new instruments and methods for nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and arms control treaty verification. We will educate more than 60 Bachelors, Masters, and Ph. D. students with the talent, training, and commitment to meet the current and emerging challenges in this field. These graduates will have strong ties to the national laboratory system thanks to the collaborative research projects in which they will be engaged.

About the Speaker:

Professor Sara Pozzi earned her M.S. and Ph.D. in nuclear engineering at the Polytechnic of Milan, Italy in 1997 and 2001, respectively.  Following her doctorate, she spent six years as a staff scientist at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), where she most recently held the position of Senior Staff. In 2007, she joined the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan where she established and is the leader of the Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group (DNNG). Her research interests include the development of new methods for nuclear materials detection, identification, and characterization for nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear material control and accountability, nuclear safeguards, and national security programs.

Prof. Pozzi is the director of the Consortium for Verification Technology, a consortium of 13 universities and 9 national laboratories dedicated to the development of new technologies for nuclear treaty verification. She is the co-author of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX-PoliMi, which is being used at over 50 institutions world-wide. Her publication record includes over 300 papers in journals and international conference proceedings. She was invited to give over 50 seminars, both nationally and internationally. As the DNNG leader, she advises 14 doctoral students and many undergraduate students, and is the faculty advisor for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) student chapter.

She is the recipient of many awards, including the 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Early Career Award, 2006 Department of Energy, Office of Science, Outstanding Mentor Award, 2009 INMM Central Region Chapter, Special Service Award, 2012 INMM Edway R. Johnson Meritorious Service Award, and 2012 UM Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences Department, Outstanding Achievement Award.

CASL Status, Plans, and Challenges

kothe
SPEAKER:
DR. DOUGLAS KOTHE

DIRECTOR, CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED SIMULATION OF  LIGHT WATER REACTORS (CASL)

DATE/TIME:
MON, 01/26/2015 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2015 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

Energy Innovation Hubs established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) strive to enable and accelerate translational research. Hubs focus on a single topic, with the objective of rapidly bridging the gaps between basic research, engineering development, and commercialization through a close partnership with industry. To achieve this goal, the Hubs necessarily consist of large, highly integrated and collaborative creative teams working to solve priority technology challenges. For the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), in operation since 2010 as the first Hub by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, the focus is on commercial nuclear power generation, specifically the modeling and simulation (M&S) of nuclear reactors currently on the grid in the U.S. CASL not only strives to bring innovation to the nuclear energy enterprise but also to help retain and strengthen U.S. leadership in two DOE mission areas: HPC-enabled M&S and nuclear energy.

After a brief overview of CASL’s vision, mission, and strategic goals, the status of CASL’s R&D activities and products will be reviewed, with illustrative examples given where possible in the areas of radiation transport, thermal hydraulics, fuel performance, verification and validation (V&V), uncertainty quantification (UQ), and multiphysics coupling models and algorithms. These examples will be given within the context of CASL’s Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA). As CASL prepares for a possible second five years of execution, specific R&D plans and challenges will be reviewed, with suggestions for collaboration activities and opportunities.

About the Speaker:

Douglas B. Kothe (Doug) is the Director of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of
Light Water Reactors, a DOE Innovation Hub at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Doug has been at ORNL since 2006 when he became the Director of Science in the ORNL National Center of Computational Sciences. Doug holds a PhD in Nuclear Engineering in 1987 from Purdue University, where his research focused on computational applications for inertial confinement fusion while serving as a Graduate Research Assistant at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). After a brief period in the defense science program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Doug worked at LANL for 20 years (prior to coming to ORNL) where he held a number of research, program, and line management positions in applied and fundamental defense-related R&D programs sponsored by the DOE, NASA, DoD, and private industry. Doug’s research interests and expertise lies in the development of physical models and numerical algorithms for the simulation of a wide variety of physical processes in the presence of incompressible and compressible fluid flow.

Chemical Processing for Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactors

Sorensen_headshot
SPEAKER:
KIRK SORENSEN, M.S.

PRESIDENT AND CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST, FLIBE ENERGY

DATE/TIME:
MON, 01/16/2015 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Spring 2015 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

Chemical processing is required in order to efficiently use thorium as a nuclear fuel. Thorium dioxide (ThO2) is a challenging fuel in solid-fueled reactors due to its exceptional chemical stability and this has contributed to the limited use of thorium in existing light-water reactors. Thorium tetrafluoride (ThF4) is even more chemically stable than ThO2, but ThF4 dissolved in a medium of LiF-BeF2 can be used as a fluid blanket in a liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) and can be chemically processed directly. Liquid fluoride fuel also removes the need for conventional fuel fabrication, which is made very challenging by the high radiation fields that accompany the recovered uranium-233 fuel product. Rapid removal of fission products gases (like xenon) and other fission products that have high neutron absorption cross-sections reduce neutron losses in the reactor that would otherwise compromise the breeding capability the proposed thorium fuel cycle.

About the Speaker:

Kirk Sorensen is a nuclear and aerospace engineer working on the development of a liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) as a source of energy and important materials.  He has a masters of science in nuclear engineering from the University of Tennessee and a masters of science in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology.  For ten years he worked in advanced propulsion technology development at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, including a two-year assignment to the US Army’s Space and Missile Defense Command.  He joined Teledyne Brown Engineering in Huntsville, Alabama, in 2010 as their chief nuclear technologist and later started his own company, Flibe Energy.  Flibe now works under contract to Teledyne on the conceptual design of a future LFTR power station.  Kirk is also an international speaker with recent talks in Switzerland, Singapore, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Dubai, Portugal, Canada, as well as many talks across the United States.  His work has been featured in numerous magazines, books, television specials, radio and internet interviews.  He has also taught nuclear engineering as a visiting instructor at Tennessee Technological University in 2010.

Kinetic analysis of criticality accident in weakly coupled fuel solution system

Obara
SPEAKER:
PROFESSOR TORU OBARA

PROFESSOR OF RESEARCH LABORATORY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS, TOKYO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DIRECTOR OF CENTER FOR RESEARCH INTO INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS (CRINES), TOKYO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DATE/TIME:
FRI,
11/14/2014 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Fall 2014 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

In criticality accidents of fuel solutions, if there are several solution tanks located near the tank that becomes super-critical, the total released energy can be larger than that involving just one tank, because of the neutron interaction between the tanks. Thus, it is important to perform transient analysis in such cases by taking into account the neutron interaction between the tanks. A kinetic analysis code based on an integral kinetic model was developed and applied to the kinetic analysis of criticality accidents in a weakly coupled system. If it is possible to know the total energy release in a compound accident compared to an accident in a single solution tank, this would be useful for the protection against radiation in such accidents. The methodology to predict the total energy is shown in criticality accidents involving several fuel solution tanks from the knowledge of how much energy is released in a single solution tank using the integral kinetic model.

Safety Countermeasure of Onagawa NPS after the Great East-Japan Earthquake, and the current situation of nuclear power in Japan

obonai
SPEAKER:
AKIYOSHI OBONAI

TOHOKU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY

DATE/TIME:
MON, 11/14/2014 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
180 DOE LIBRARY
Fall 2014 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

On, March 11, a massive earthquake occurred at 2:46 p.m. Japan standard time, and the epicenter was about 130km off the Pacific Ocean from the Oshika peninsula where Onagawa NPS is located.

First, I would like to talk about what happened at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station (NPS), and how we managed the plant in order to reach a cold shut down.

Next I would like to talk about the safety countermeasure after 3/11, learning the lesson from Onagawa and Fukushima. We conducted the detailed evaluation of 3/11/’11 earthquakes and tsunamis. Based on this evaluation, we have been conducting further seismic reinforcement and constructing high levee (about 29m above sea level).  In addition, we are making safety upgrades for severe accident, i.e. Filtered Containment Vessel System, and alternative decay heat removable system.

Finally, I would like to talk about the current situation of nuclear power in Japan. For example, government policy, people’s attitude toward nuclear power, and the circumstance for restarting nuclear power station.

About the Speaker:

Akiyoshi Obonai received his masters in Nuclear Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1994.  He currently works for the Tohuko Electric Power Company in reactor operation, reactor safety analysis and nuclear fuel management.  He is certified by the Japanese government as a Chief Nuclear Reactor Engineer and Chief Electrical Engineer.

Lessons Learned from CIRFT Testing Methodology in Applying to High Burn-up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

Wang
SPEAKER:
JOHN JY-AN WANG

MATERIALS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE, TN

DATE/TIME:
MON, 11/03/2014 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Fall 2014 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

A cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) was developed to support U.S. NRC and DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign studies on high burn-up (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation during normal conditions of transport (NCT). Several HBU SNF samples from both Zr-4 and M5 clad were investigated. During CIRFT program development, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to translate CIRFT global measurement data to the localized stress-strain profiles. The stress concentration effect at pellet-pellet interface region was also observed from FEA and such phenomenon was also revealed by CIRFT testing where the majority SNF rod failures are located at pellet-pellet interface. The information resulting from these studies will be presented, as outlined below:

•    Fuel support to the clad stiffness during random vibration
•    Stress concentration effects on the clad at pellet-pellet interfaces
•    The translation of CIRFT global measurements to local stress-strain levels
•    Potential hydrogen effects on SNF vibration integrity
•    Pellet-clad bonding efficiency on SNF mechanical properties
•    Failure mechanisms of HBU SNF rods under reverse bending forces, and
•    The potential impact of combined loading modes and loading rates on SNF vibration integrity.

About the Speaker:

Dr. John Jy-An Wang is a Distinguished Research Staff Member at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). He received a Ph.D. from University of California, Berkeley, in 1988, in the field of mechanics of material and structural dynamics from Civil Engineering Department. Since 1989 he has been working at ORNL as a research scientist. During his residence at ORNL he has published over 170 technical reports and journal articles on subjects related to fatigue and fracture toughness evaluation of structural materials, the neutron radiation embrittlement predictions for pressure vessel steels, the development of power reactor and test reactor databases for reactor material aging research, spent nuclear fuel vibration reliability investigation, pipeline hydrogen embrittlement study, interfacial fracture toughness research for polymeric composites as well as for weld HAZ materials, cavitation damage simulation research, and high temperature power transmission conductor-connector system reliability investigation.

The CASL Energy Innovation Hub Development of the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications

gehin
SPEAKER:
JESS C. GEHIN, PH.D.

REACTOR TECHNOLOGY R&D INTEGRATION LEAD
REACTOR AND NUCLEAR SYSTEMS DIVISION, ORNL

DATE/TIME:
MON, 10/27/2014 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Fall 2014 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is the first Energy Innovation Hub created by the US Department of Energy in 2010. Its primary goal is to develop modeling and simulation capabilities in support of the nuclear power industries’ objectives of reducing the cost of electrical energy generation by increased power uprates, extended fuel discharge burnups, and increased plant lifetime. In order to achieve this, CASL is developing the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) that includes multiphysics coupling of neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, fuel thermal-mechanical performance, and coolant chemistry.   This presentation will discuss VERA development and provide an overview results from VERA for the modeling of the Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Unit 1 reactor and the Westinghouse AP1000®.

About the Speaker:

Dr. Jess Gehin is currently the Reactor Technology R&D Integration Lead in the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.    He also leads the Physics Integration Focus Area for the Consortium for Advanced Modeling and Simulation of Light Water Reactors as well as being engaged in additional programmatic areas related to advanced nuclear fuel cycles and advanced reactors.  His primary areas of expertise are nuclear reactor physics and reactor and fuel cycle technology.    From 2003 to 2008 Dr. Gehin served as the leader of the ORNL Reactor Analysis Group with projects sponsored primarily by the Department of Energy office of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense.    Prior to this position, Dr. Gehin was a Senior R&D staff member performing research primarily in the area of nuclear reactor physics working on projects such as the development of the Advanced Neutron Source Research Reactor, Fissile Material Disposition, and modeling of experiments in the High Flux Isotope Reactor.  Dr. Gehin earned his B.S. degree in Nuclear Engineering in 1988 from Kansas State University and M.S. (1990) and Ph.D. (1992) degrees in Nuclear Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Gehin also holds the position of Joint Associate Professor in the Nuclear Engineering Department at the University of Tennessee.

Passivity; the Enabler of Our Reactive Metals-Based Civilization

Macdonald
SPEAKER:
DIGBY D. MACDONALD, PH.D.

DEPARTMENTS OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

DATE/TIME:
MON, 10/20/2014 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Fall 2014 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

For more than forty years, the conditions for the existence of the passive state, and hence for the existence of our metals-based civilization, which is based upon the use of the reactive metals (Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, etc) to build machines, have been described in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics in the form of Pourbaix diagrams.  These diagrams plot equilibrium potential versus pH relationships for various reactions (e.g., Fe/Fe3O4, Fe/Fe2+, Fe3O4/Fe2+) to define regions of stability or predominance.  However, Pourbaix diagrams provide an equilibrium view of passivity, whereas passive films are non-equilibrium structures, whose existence depends upon an appropriate relationship between the rate of formation and the rate of destruction.  Accordingly, a more accurate and realistic description of the phenomena of passivity and passivity breakdown must be found in the field of electrochemical kinetics.  It is this kinetic theory for depassivation (loss of passivity) that is presented in this paper and which has led to the development of Kinetic Stability Diagrams.  KSDs are kinetic alternatives to the classical, thermodynamic equilibrium diagrams and provide a much more accurate view of passivity in highly acidic environments where the utility of Pourbaix diagrams is limited.  It is shown that the kinetic theory for depassivation not only accounts for transpassive dissolution, acid depassivation, flow-assisted corrosion, and fretting corrosion, and other “localized corrosion processes”, but it also led to the discovery of a new form of depassivation, which is termed “resistive depassivation”.  When applied to microscopic regions on a metal surface, at which cation vacancies that are generated at the film/solution interface by the absorption of chloride ion into surface oxygen vacancies condense at the metal/film interface, and hence cause cessation of the growth of the barrier layer into the metal, “depassivation” theory provides a natural account of blister formation and subsequent passivity breakdown.  This presentation will present the theory of passivity breakdown according to the point defect model and will show that the theory accounts essentially for all that is known about this important phenomenon.

About the Speaker:

Born in Thames, New Zealand, December 7 1943, Professor Macdonald gained his BSc and MSc degrees in Chemistry at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and his Ph.D. degree in Chemistry from the University of Calgary in Canada.  He has served as Assistant Research Officer at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Lecturer in Chemistry at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, Senior Research Associate at Alberta Sulfur Research, Honorary Associate Professor at the Chemistry Department of the University of Calgary, Director and Professor of the Fontana Corrosion Center, Ohio State University, Vice President, Physical Sciences Division, SRI International, Menlo Park, California and has been Professor and later Distinguished Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Pennsylvania State University since 1991.  On December 31, 2012, Professor Macdonald retired from Penn State and accepted Emeritus status at the university.  He then moved to California become Professor in Residence with a joint appointment between the Departments of Nuclear Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley.

Professor Macdonald has received numerous awards and honors, including the 1991 Carl Wagner Memorial Award from The Electrochemical Society; the 1992 Willis Rodney Whitney Award from The National Association of Corrosion Engineers for “contributions to the science of corrosion”; the W. B. Lewis Memorial Lecture from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., for his “contributions to the development of nuclear power in the service of mankind”; the H. H. Uhlig Award from The Electrochemical Society; the U. R. Evans Award from The Institute of Corrosion, UK; the 20th Khwarizmi International Award in fundamental science; and the Wilson Research and Teaching Awards of the Pennsylvania State University.  He is an elected fellow of NACE-International; The Electrochemical Society; the Royal Society of Canada; the Royal Society of New Zealand; ASM International; the World Innovation Foundation; the Institute of Corrosion (UK); and the International Society of Electrochemistry.  From 1993 to 1997 he was a member of the US Air Force Science Advisory Board with the protocol rank of Lieutenant General.  He was awarded the US Air Force Medal for Meritorious Civilian Service in 1997.  Dr. Macdonald was a Trustee of ASM International and has recently (2011) been inducted Doctuer Honoris Causa by INSA-Lyon, Lyon, France.  He was a recent (2011) recipient of the Lee Hsun Research Award of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.  More recently (2012), he received the Faraday Memorial Trust Gold Medal from the Central Electrochemical Research Institute in Karaikudi, India, for his work in electrochemistry and in particular on the phenomenon of passivity and passivity breakdown, and in 2013 he was awarded the Gibbs Award for his ground-breaking work on the properties of aqueous solutions at high temperatures [for example, he is the first and only person to measure the pH of an aqueous solution at supercritical temperatures (T > 374.15 oC), with the measurements being made at temperatures up to 528 oC].  In September 2014, he was awarded the Frumkin Memorial Medal by the International Society of Electrochemistry primarily for his work on passivity.

 

Dr. Macdonald has published more than 900 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals, books, and conference proceedings, plus four books, one of which ("Transient Techniques in Electrochemistry") established an important area of electrochemical research, and has 11 patents and numerous invention disclosures credited to his name.

Global Problems and Global Solutions

Gilleland_Photo
SPEAKER:
DR. JOHN GILLELAND

CEO OF TERRAPOWER, LLC.

DATE/TIME:
MON, 10/13/2014 - 4:00PM TO 5:00PM
LOCATION:
3105 ETCHEVERRY HALL
Fall 2014 Colloquium Series
Abstract:

John will talk about the conditions needed for starting and then controlling international development programs.  Examples are the traveling wave reactor development program, Archimedes Filter development, ITER, and the US-Japan Collaboration on DIII/DIIID.  Similarities and differences will be discussed. John had managerial responsibility in all these programs. Emphasis will be placed on the current TWR program.

About the Speaker:

John Gilleland is the Chief Executive Officer of TerraPower LLC.  The Company is focused on the development of advanced nuclear power systems.

Previously Dr Gilleland founded and served as the CEO of Archimedes Technology Group, a company which created a new technology that could greatly speed up weapons waste cleanup and opens new approaches to commercial spent fuel reprocessing.

As Chief Scientist and Vice president of Energy Programs at Bechtel Corporation he had responsibility for a large number of advanced energy production and energy storage projects. This included large scale renewable energy projects as well as advanced nuclear systems.

Prior to that he served as the US Managing Director of ITER during its Conceptual Design Phase and Director of the DIIID fusion research program at General Atomics.

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